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  1. 2009.04.09 Ethical Journalism (NYtimes) (1)
2009.04.09 11:25

Ethical Journalism (NYtimes)


Ethical Journalism

A Handbook of Values and Practices for

the News and Editorial Departments

September 2004

Ethical

Journalism

A Handbook of Values and Practices for the News and Editorial Departments

“ Reporters, editors, photographers and all members of the news staff of The New York Times share a common and essential interest in protecting the integrity of the newspaper. As the news, editorial and business leadership of the newspaper declared jointly in 1998: ‘Our greatest strength is the authority and reputation of The Times. We must do nothing that would undermine or dilute it and everything possible to enhance it.’ ”

Guidelines on Our Integrity, May 1999

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

1.

The goal of The New York Times is to cover the news impartially as possible . “without fear or favor,” in the words of Adolph Ochs, our patriarch . and to treat readers, news sources, advertisers and others fairly and openly, and to be seen to be doing so. The reputation of The Times rests upon such perceptions, and so do the professional reputations of its staff members. Thus The Times and members of its news department and editorial page staff share an interest in avoiding conflicts of interest or an appearance of a conflict.

2.

For more than a century, men and women of The Times have jealously guarded the paper’s integrity. Whatever else we contribute, our first duty is to make sure the integrity of The Times is not blemished during our stewardship.

3.

Conflicts of interest, real or apparent, may come up in many areas. They may involve the relationships of staff members with readers, news sources, advocacy groups, advertisers, or competitors; with one another, or with the newspaper or its parent company. And at a time when two-career families are the norm, the civic and professional activities of spouses, family and companions can create conflicts or the appearance of conflicts.

4.

In keeping with its solemn responsibilities under the First Amendment, The Times strives to maintain the highest standards of journalistic ethics. It is confident that its staff members share that goal. The Times also recognizes that staff members should be free to do creative, civic and personal work and to earn extra income in ways separate from their work at The Times. Before engaging in such outside activities, though, staff members should exercise mature professional judgment and consider the stake we all have in The Times’s irreplaceable good name.

The Scope of These Guidelines

5.

These guidelines generally apply to all members of the news and editorial departments whose work directly affects the content of the paper, including those on leaves of absence.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Introduction and Purpose

Introduction and Purpose

1

They include reporters, editors, editorial writers, photographers, picture editors, art directors, artists, designers, graphics editors and researchers. This group of professional journalists is what this text means by “staff” or “staff members.”

6.

News clerks, administrative assistants, secretaries and other support staff are generally not bound by these strictures, with two important exceptions: First, no newsroom or editorial page employee may exploit for personal gain any nonpublic information acquired at work, or use his or her association with The Times to gain favor or advantage. And second, no one may do anything that damages The Times’s reputation for strict neutrality in reporting on politics and government; in particular, no one may wear campaign buttons or display any other form of political partisanship while on the job.

7.

Our contracts with freelance contributors require them to avoid conflicts of interest, real or apparent. In keeping with that, they must honor these guidelines in their Times assignments, as set forth in Section 14.

8.

The Times believes beyond question that its staff shares the values these guidelines are intended to protect. In the past The Times has resolved differences of view over applying these values amiably through discussion, almost without exception. The paper has every reason to believe that pattern will continue.
Nevertheless, The Times views any deliberate violation of these guidelines as a serious offense that may lead to disciplinary action, potentially including dismissal, subject to the terms of any applicable collective bargaining agreement.

9.

Our fundamental purpose is to protect the impartiality and neutrality of The Times and the integrity of its report. In many instances, merely applying that purpose with common sense will point to the ethical course. Sometimes the answer is self-evident. Simply asking oneself whether a course of action might damage the paper’s reputation is often enough to gauge whether the action is appropriate.

4

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

10.

Every staff member is expected to read this document carefully and to think about how it might apply to his or her duties. A lack of familiarity with its provisions cannot excuse a violation; to the contrary, it makes the violation worse. The provisions presented here can offer only broad principles and some examples. Our world changes constantly, sometimes dramatically. No written document could anticipate every possibility. Thus we expect staff members to consult their supervisors and the standards editor or the deputy editorial page editor if they have any doubts about any particular situation or opportunity covered by this document. In most cases an exchange of e-mails should suffice.

11.

Thus this handbook is not an exhaustive compilation of all situations that may give rise to an actual or perceived conflict of interest. It does not exclude situations or issues giving rise to such conflicts simply because they are not explicitly covered within this document, nor does the document or any of its particular provisions create an implied or express contract of employment with any individual to whom the guidelines apply. The Times reserves the right to modify and expand the guidelines from time to time, as appropriate. (See the letter of understanding with the Newspaper Guild of New York, included as Appendix C below.)

12.

The authority to interpret and apply these guidelines is vested in department heads and ranking editors, most notably in the standards editor and the deputy editorial page editor. They may delegate that duty to their ranking assistants, but they remain responsible for decisions made in their name.

Other Standards of Behavior
Introduction and Purpose

13.

In addition to this handbook, we observe the Newsroom

Integrity Statement, promulgated in 1999, which deals with

such rudimentary professional practices as the importance of

checking facts, the exactness of quotations, the integrity of

photographs and our distaste for anonymous sourcing; and

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Introduction and Purpose

the Policy on Confidential Sources, issued in 2004. These

documents are available from the office of the associate

managing editor for news administration or on the Newsroom

home page under Policies.

14.

As employees of the Times Company, we observe the Rules of the

Road, which are the axiomatic standards of behavior governing

our dealing with colleagues and going about our work. The

Rules are available from the office of the associate managing

editor for news administration. Together with a statement

of supporting principles, the Rules are on the Internet at

http://insite.nytco.com/OUR_COMPANY/our_company.html.

We also observe the company’s policies against harassment and

on computers and electronic communications, which appear

on the Internet at http://insite.nytco.com/OUR_COMPANY/

POLICIES/policies.html.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

15.

The Times treats its readers as fairly and openly as possible. In

print and online, we tell our readers the complete, unvarnished

truth as best we can learn it. It is our policy to correct our

errors, large and small, as soon as we become aware of them.

16.

We treat our readers no less fairly in private than in public.

Anyone who deals with readers is expected to honor that

principle, knowing that ultimately the readers are our employers.

Civility applies whether an exchange takes place in person, by

telephone, by letter or online. Simple courtesy suggests that

we not alienate our readers by ignoring their letters and e-mails

that warrant reply.

17.

The Times gathers information for the benefit of its readers.

Staff members may not use their Times position to make

inquiries for any other purpose. As noted in paragraph 6, they

may not seek any advantage for themselves or others by acting

on or disclosing information acquired in their work but not

yet available to readers.

18.

Staff members who plagiarize or who knowingly or recklessly

provide false information for publication betray our fundamental

pact with our readers. We will not tolerate such behavior.

Our Duty to Our Readers

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Pursuing the News

19.

The Times treats news sources just as fairly and openly as it

treats readers. We do not inquire pointlessly into someone’s

personal life. Staff members may not threaten to damage

uncooperative sources. They may not promise favorable

coverage in return for cooperation. They may not pay for

interviews or unpublished documents.

20.

Staff members should disclose their identity to people they

cover (whether face to face or otherwise), though they need

not always announce their status as journalists when seeking

information normally available to the public. Staff members

may not pose as police officers, lawyers, business people

or anyone else when they are working as journalists. (As

happens on rare occasions, when seeking to enter countries

that bar journalists, correspondents may take cover from

vagueness and identify themselves as traveling on business

or as tourists.)

21.

Theater, music and art critics and other writers who review

goods or services offered to the public may conceal their

Times connection but may not normally assert a false identity

or affiliation. As an exception, restaurant critics may make

reservations in false names to protect their identity.

Restaurant critics and travel writers must conceal their Times

affiliation to eliminate the possibility of special treatment.

Personal Relations with Sources

22.

Relationships with sources require the utmost in sound

judgment and self discipline to prevent the fact or appearance

of partiality. Cultivating sources is an essential skill, often

practiced most effectively in informal settings outside of

normal business hours. Yet staff members, especially those

assigned to beats, must be sensitive that personal relationships

with news sources can erode into favoritism, in fact or

appearance. And conversely staff members must be aware

that sources are eager to win our good will for reasons of

their own.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

23.

Even though this topic defies hard and fast rules, it is essential

that we preserve a professional detachment, free of any whiff of

bias. Staff members may see sources informally over a meal or

drinks, but they must keep in mind the difference between

legitimate business and personal friendship. A City Hall

reporter who enjoys a weekly round of golf with a City Council

member, for example, risks creating an appearance of coziness,

even if they sometimes discuss business on the course. So does a

reporter who joins a regular card game or is a familiar face in a

corporation’s box seats or who spends weekends in the

company of people he or she covers. Scrupulous practice requires

that periodically we step back and take a hard look at whether we

have drifted too close to sources we deal with regularly. The acid

test of freedom from favoritism is the ability to maintain good

working relationships with all parties to a dispute.

24.

Clearly, romantic involvement with a news source would foster

an appearance of partiality. Therefore staff members who develop

close relationships with people who might figure in coverage they

provide, edit, package or supervise must disclose those relationships

to the standards editor, the associate managing editor for news

administration or the deputy editorial page editor. In some cases,

no further action may be needed. But in other instances staff

members may have to recuse themselves from certain coverage.

And in still other cases, assignments may have to be modified

or beats changed. In a few instances, a staff member may have to

move to a different department . from business and financial

news, say, to the culture desk.to avoid the appearance of conflict.

Obeying the Law in Pursuit of the News

Pursuing the News

25.

Staff members must obey the law in the pursuit of news. They

may not break into buildings, homes, apartments or offices.

They may not purloin data, documents or other property,

including such electronic property as databases and e-mail or

voice mail messages. They may not tap telephones, invade

computer files or otherwise eavesdrop electronically on news

sources. In short, they may not commit illegal acts of any sort.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Pursuing the News

26.

Staff members may not use the identification cards or special

license plates issued by police or other official agencies except

in doing their jobs. Staff members who have applied for or

hold “NYP” or other special plates should disclose that fact to

the associate managing editor for news administration or the

deputy editorial page editor. Staff members whose duties do

not require special plates must return them.

27.

Staff members may not record conversations without the prior

consent of all parties to the conversations. Even where the law

allows recording with only one party aware of it, the practice is

a deception. Masthead editors may make rare exceptions to this

prohibition in places where recordings made secretly are legal.

Accepting Hospitality from Sources

28.

The Times pays the expenses when its representatives

entertain news sources (including government officials) or

travel to cover them. In some business situations and in

some cultures, it may be unavoidable to accept a meal or a

drink paid for by a news source. For example, a Times

reporter need not decline every invitation to interview an

executive over lunch in the corporation’s private dining

room, where it is all but impossible to pick up the check.

Whenever practical, however, the reporter should suggest

dining where The Times can pay. A simple buffet of muffins

and coffee at a news conference, for example, is harmless,

but a staff member should not attend a breakfast or lunch

held periodically for the press by a “newsmaker” unless The

Times pays for the staff member’s meals.

29.

Staff members may not accept free or discounted transportation

and lodging except where special circumstances give us

little or no choice. Among them are certain military or

scientific expeditions and other trips for which alternative

arrangements would be impractical . for example, a flight

aboard a corporate jet during which an executive is interviewed.

Staff members should consult their supervisors and the

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

standards editor or the deputy editorial page editor when

special circumstances arise.

30.

Staff members who review artistic performances or cover

athletic or other events where admission is charged (for example,

the New York Auto Show) may accept the press passes or

tickets customarily made available. No other staff members,

not even editors in the culture and sports departments, may

accept free tickets. Even when paying the box office price, no

staff member may use his or her Times position to request

choice or hard-to-get seats unless the performance has a clear

bearing on his or her job.

Dealing with the Competition

Pursuing the News

31.

Staff members compete zealously but deal with competitors

openly and honestly. We do not invent obstacles to hamstring

their efforts. When we use facts reported by another publication,

we attribute them.

32.

Staff members may not join teams covering news events for

other organizations, and they may not accept payment from

competitors for news tips. They may not be listed on the

masthead of any non-Times publication, except for publications

serving organizations of the sort described in paragraph 70.

Common examples include a church or synagogue newsletter,

an alumni magazine or a club bulletin.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Protecting the Paper’s Neutrality

4

33.

Staff members may not accept gifts, tickets, discounts,

reimbursements or other inducements from any individuals

or organizations covered by The Times or likely to be covered

by The Times. (Exceptions may be made for trinkets of

nominal value, say, $25 or less, such as a mug or a cap with a

company logo.) Gifts should be returned with a polite

explanation. A sample letter for use in such situations appears

below as Appendix A.

34.

Staff members may not accept employment or compensation of

any sort from individuals or organizations who figure or are likely

to figure in coverage they provide, edit, package or supervise.

35.

Staff members may not accept anything that could be construed

as a payment for favorable coverage or as an inducement to

alter or forgo unfavorable coverage. They may share in reprint

fees that other journalistic media pay The Times, according to

the terms of our contract with the Newspaper Guild. They

may also share in fees paid by non-journalistic parties for

permission to reprint Times material in advertisements or

promotions, though their share of those fees may not exceed

$200 an article.

36.

Staff members may accept any gifts or discounts available to the

general public. Normally they are also free to take advantage of

conventional corporate discounts that the Times Company

has offered to share with all employees (for example, corporate

car rental rates). And staff members may accept free admission

at museums or other benefits extended to all Times employees

by virtue of the Times Company Foundation’s support of

various cultural institutions.

37.

Staff members must be mindful, however, that large discounts

. even those negotiated by the Times Company . may create

the appearance of partiality, especially by those who have a

hand in the coverage of the company or industry offering the

discount. If General Motors, for instance, offers substantial

trade discounts to all Times Company employees, the Detroit

12

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

correspondent should not accept without discussing the

possible appearance of favoritism with the responsible editors.

If any such discounts do raise doubts, staff members should

bring them to the attention of their department heads and

the standards editor or the deputy editorial page editor

before accepting.

38.

Unless the special terms are offered by The New York Times

Company or a Times subsidiary or affiliate, staff members

may not buy stock in initial public offerings through “friends

and family shares” where any plausible possibility exists of a

real or apparent conflict of interest. Staff members may not

accept allocations from brokerage firms.

Providing Financial or Other Advice

Protecting the Paper’s Neutrality

39.

It is an inherent conflict for a Times staff member to perform

public relations work, paid or unpaid. Staff members may not

advise individuals or organizations how to deal successfully

with the news media (though they may of course explain

the paper’s normal workings and steer outsiders to the

appropriate Times person). They may not, for example, advise

candidates for public office, write or edit annual reports or

contribute to the programs of sports teams. They should

not take part in public relations workshops that charge

admission or imply privileged access to Times people, or

participate in surveys asking their opinion of an organization’s

press relations or public image. They are free, however, to

offer reasonable help to institutions such as their child’s

school, a small museum, a community charity or their

house of worship. (See paragraph 70 for a fuller discussion

of permissible participation.)

40.

Staff members may not serve as ghost writers or co-authors

for individuals who figure or are likely to figure in coverage

they provide, edit, package or supervise. They may not

undertake such assignments for organizations that espouse

a cause.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Protecting the Paper’s Neutrality

41.

Staff members may not engage in financial counseling (except

in the articles they write). They may not manage money for

others, proffer investment advice, or operate or help operate an

investment company of any sort, with or without pay. They

may not do anything that would require registration as an

investment adviser. They may, however, help family members

with ordinary financial planning and serve as executors or

administrators of estates of relatives and friends and as

court-appointed conservators and guardians.

Speaking Engagements

42.

The Times freely acknowledges that outside appearances can

enhance the reputation of its bylines and serve the paper’s

interests. Nevertheless, no staff member may appear before an

outside group if the appearance could reasonably create an

actual or apparent conflict of interest or undermine public

trust in the paper’s impartiality. No staff member who takes

part in a broadcast, Webcast, public forum or panel discussion

may write or edit news articles about that event.

43.

Staff members should be especially sensitive to the appearance

of partiality when they address groups that might figure in

coverage they provide, edit, package or supervise, especially

if the setting might suggest a close relationship to the

sponsoring group. Before accepting such an invitation, a

staff member must consult with the standards editor or the

deputy editorial page editor. Generally, a reporter recently

returned from the Middle East might comfortably address a

suburban synagogue or mosque but should not appear before

a group that lobbies for Israel or the Arab states. A reporter

who writes about the environment could appropriately

speak to a garden club but not to conservation groups

known for their efforts to influence public policy.

44.

Staff members may not accept invitations to speak before a

single company (for example, the Citigroup executive retreat)

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

or an industry assembly (for example, organized baseball’s 4

winter meeting) unless The Times decides the appearance is

useful and will not damage the newspaper’s reputation for

impartiality. In that case, The Times will pay expenses; no

speaker’s fee should be accepted. Staff members invited to

make such appearances should consult their supervisors and

the standards editor or the deputy editorial page editor.

45.

Staff members should not accept invitations to speak where

their function is to attract customers to an event primarily

intended as profit-making.

46.

Staff members may accept speaking fees, honorariums,

expense reimbursement and free transportation only from

educational or other nonprofit groups for which lobbying and

political activity are not a major focus. If a speaking fee exceeds

$5,000, the staff member must consult the standards editor,

the associate managing editor for news administration or the

deputy editorial page editor before accepting.

47.

Staff members who accept fees, honorariums or expenses for

speaking engagements must file with the associate managing

editor for news administration or the deputy editorial page

editor by January 31 of each year an accounting of the

previous year’s appearances. If their fees total less than $5,000,

no annual accounting is required. Fees earned under Times

auspices for promotional or other approved purposes need

not be included.

48.

Staff members who write books and want to promote them

must give their supervisor a schedule of proposed appearances.

They may accept routine expenses and fees in promotional

appearances, but they must make every effort to ensure that

their appearances conform to the spirit of these guidelines and

do not interfere with their responsibilities to the paper. If they

have doubts about an appearance, they must consult their

supervisor and the standards editor or the deputy editorial

page editor.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

15

Protecting the Paper’s Neutrality

Protecting the Paper’s Neutrality

49.

Speeches and other outside endeavors by staff members,

paid or unpaid, should not imply that they carry the

endorsement of The Times (unless they do). To the

contrary, the staff member should gracefully remind the

audience that the views expressed are his or her own.

Outside commitments should not interfere with the speaker’s

responsibilities at The Times. Thus no staff member should

agree to an extensive speaking schedule without approval

from a supervisor.

Competitions and Contests

50.

Staff members may not enter competitions sponsored by

individuals or groups who have a direct interest in the tenor

of Times coverage. They may not act as judges for these

competitions or accept their awards. Common examples are

contests sponsored by commercial, political or professional

associations to judge coverage of their affairs. The standards

editor or the deputy editorial page editor may make exceptions

for competitions underwritten by corporate sponsors if broad

in scope and independently judged, such as the University

of Missouri awards for consumer journalism, long sponsored

by J.C. Penney.

51.

Staff members may compete in competitions sponsored by

groups whose members are all journalists or whose members

demonstrably have no direct interest in the tenor of coverage

of the field being judged. Times staff members may act as

judges for such competitions and accept their awards. For

example, a staff member may enter a university-sponsored

competition for coverage of economic or foreign affairs

but not accept an advocacy group’s prize for outstanding

environmental coverage.

52.

This prohibition on taking part in sponsored competitions

applies to film festivals or awards in which critics are asked to vote

and to such competitions as the Tony Awards, the Heisman

Trophy, most valuable player and rookie of the year honors

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

and admission to sports halls of fame. Cooperation of this sort

puts the paper’s independence into question.

53.

A current list of some competitions that The Times has

approved is posted on the Newsroom home page under

Policies. Staff members who would like to enter others

should consult their supervisors and the standards editor or

the deputy editorial page editor. A critical factor in approving

a competition, whatever its sponsorship, is a record of

arm’s-length decisions, including a willingness to honor

critical reporting.

54.

Staff members who win unsought awards from groups that do

not meet the criteria established here should decline politely.

A sample reply appears below as Appendix B.

55.

Normally staff members are free to accept honorary degrees,

medals and other awards from colleges, universities and other

educational institutions. Those who cover higher education or

supervise that coverage should be sensitive to any appearance

of coziness or favoritism. Those in doubt should consult the

standards editor or the deputy editorial page editor.

The Use of Borrowed Equipment

Protecting the Paper’s Neutrality

56.

Staff members who borrow equipment, vehicles or other

goods for evaluation or review must return the borrowed

items as soon as possible. Similarly, items borrowed to be

photographed, such as fashion apparel or home furnishings,

should be returned promptly.

57.

Staff members may keep for their own collections . but may

not sell or copy . books, recordings, tapes, compact discs and

computer programs sent to them for review. Such submissions

are considered press releases. Recorded or digital media, such as

tapes or disks, must be destroyed or returned to the provider if not

retained by the journalist; they may not be copied, given away

or left where they could be carried off for illicit copying or reuse.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Collaboration and Testimonials

Protecting the Paper’s Neutrality

58.

Staff members may not collaborate in ventures involving

individuals or organizations that figure or are likely to figure

in coverage they provide, edit, package or supervise. Among

other things, this prohibition applies to collaborating in

writing books, pamphlets, reports, scripts, scores or any other

material and in making photographs or creating artwork of

any sort.

59.

Except in reviews or columns published in The Times or on

its Web site or appropriately voiced in authorized public

appearances, staff members may not offer endorsements,

testimonials or promotional blurbs for books, films, television

programs or any other programs, products or ventures.

Masthead editors may authorize rare exceptions (for instance,

when a staff member has become expert in a field unrelated to

his or her Times duties). This restriction does not apply when

permission is given to reprint Times material.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

60.

Staff members of The Times are family members and

responsible citizens as well as journalists. The Times respects

their educating their children, exercising their religion, voting

in elections and taking active part in community affairs.

Nothing in this policy is meant to infringe upon those rights.

But even in the best of causes, Times staff members have a

duty to avoid the appearance of a conflict. They should never

invoke The Times’s name in private activities.

61.

As noted in paragraph 6, certain of these requirements apply

to all newsroom and editorial page employees, journalists

and support staff alike. No newsroom or editorial employee

may do anything that damages The Times’s reputation for

strict neutrality in reporting on politics and government. In

particular, no one may wear campaign buttons or display any

other sign of political partisanship while on the job.

Otherwise, “staff members” in this section refers only to the

professional journalists defined in paragraph 5.

Voting, Campaigns and Public Issues

62.

Journalists have no place on the playing fields of politics. Staff

members are entitled to vote, but they must do nothing that

might raise questions about their professional neutrality or that

of The Times. In particular, they may not campaign for,

demonstrate for, or endorse candidates, ballot causes or efforts to

enact legislation. They may not wear campaign buttons or

themselves display any other insignia of partisan politics. They

should recognize that a bumper sticker on the family car or a

campaign sign on the lawn may be misread as theirs, no matter

who in their household actually placed the sticker or the sign.

63.

Staff members may not themselves give money to, or raise

money for, any political candidate or election cause. Given

the ease of Internet access to public records of campaign

contributors, any political giving by a Times staff member

would carry a great risk of feeding a false impression that the

paper is taking sides.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Participation in Public Life

Participation in Public Life

64.

No staff member may seek public office anywhere. Seeking

or serving in public office plainly violates the professional

detachment expected of a journalist. It poses a risk of

having the staff member’s political views imputed to

The Times, and it can sow a suspicion of favoritism in

The Times’s political coverage when one of its staff is an

active participant.

65.

Staff members may not march or rally in support of public

causes or movements, sign ads taking a position on public

issues, or lend their name to campaigns, benefit dinners or

similar events if doing so might reasonably raise doubts about

their ability or The Times’s ability to function as neutral

observers in covering the news. Staff members must keep in

mind that neighbors and other observers commonly see them

as representatives of The Times.

66.

Staff members may appear from time to time on radio and

television programs devoted to public affairs, but they should

avoid expressing views that go beyond what they would be

allowed to say in the paper. Op-Ed columnists and editorial

writers enjoy more leeway than others in speaking publicly

because their business is expressing opinions. The Times

nevertheless expects them to consider carefully the forums in

which they appear and to protect the standards and impartiality

of the newspaper as a whole.

67.

Staff members must be sensitive that perfectly proper

political activity by their spouses, family or companions

may nevertheless create conflicts of interest or the appearance

of conflict. When such a possibility arises, the staff member

should advise his or her department head and the standards

editor or the deputy editorial page editor. Depending on

circumstances, the staff member may have to recuse himself

or herself from certain coverage or even move to a job

unrelated to the activities in question.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

68.

A staff member with any doubts about a proposed political

activity should consult the standards editor or the deputy

editorial page editor. These restrictions protect the heart of

our mission as journalists. Though The Times will consider

matters case by case, it will be exceedingly cautious before

permitting an exception.

Community Service

Participation in Public Life

69.

Staff members may not serve on government boards or

commissions, paid or unpaid. They may not join boards of

trustees, advisory committees or similar groups except those

serving journalistic organizations or otherwise promoting

journalism education. Those in doubt about such activities

should consult their supervisors and the standards editor or

the deputy editorial page editor. Depending on circumstances,

exceptions may be made to permit staff members to serve

their alma mater (or their children’s alma mater) as a trustee

or visitor at schools that seldom if ever generate news of

interest to The Times.

70.

The Times has no wish to impede good community

citizenship. Normally the restriction on joining trustee

boards or advisory committees will not apply to organizations

that are highly unlikely to generate news of interest to

The Times and that do not generally seek to shape

public policy. These typically include houses of worship,

community charities, local libraries, fine arts groups, hobby

groups, youth athletic leagues, country clubs and alumni

groups. Within reason staff members may help such groups

with relatively modest fundraising. They should not play

a leading role or ever lead a donor to expect a favor in

return. They should never solicit anyone with whom they

or The Times has professional dealings. Those in any doubt

about what is permissible should consult the standards

editor or the deputy editorial page editor.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Participation in Public Life

71.

Staff members may not solicit funds for political, social,

religious, educational, philanthropic or other causes that reach

beyond the sorts of groups described in paragraph 70. Doing so

could create an expectation of a favor in return. Staff members

should think carefully about their own contributions to various

causes, bearing in mind the need for neutrality on divisive

issues. Those in doubt about contributions should consult

their supervisors and the standards editor or the deputy

editorial page editor.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

72.

The Times treats advertisers as fairly and openly as it treats

readers and news sources. The relationship between The Times

and advertisers rests on the understanding, long observed in all

departments, that news and advertising are strictly separate .

that those who deal with either one have distinct obligations

and interests and neither group will try to influence the other.

73.

Members of the news department should maintain their

disinterest and objectivity by avoiding discussions of advertising

needs, goals and problems except where those needs or

problems are directly related to the business of the news

department. In many instances, for example, the news and

advertising departments may properly confer on the layout

and configuration of the paper or the timing of special sections.

74.

When authorized by the executive editor, members of the

news staff may take part in interdepartmental committees

on problems that affect several departments, including news.

As far as possible they should leave advertising issues to

colleagues from the business side.

75.

From time to time, when authorized by the executive editor

or the editorial page editor, staff members may take part in

events organized by The Times for marketing or promotion.

But they should stick to their expertise and refrain from

saying anything that sounds like a sales pitch.

76.

No one in the news department below the masthead level

(except when authorized by the executive editor) may

exchange information with the advertising department or

with advertisers about the timing or content of advertising,

the timing or content of articles or the assignment of staff or

freelance writers, editors, artists, designers or photographers.

Advertisers, Marketing, Promotion

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Obligations to The Times

77.

The Times’s good name does not belong to any of us. No one

has a right to expropriate it for private purposes.

78.

Staff members may not use Times identification cards for

purposes not connected with Times employment. Cards may

not be used to obtain special treatment or advantage from

governmental, commercial or other organizations (except when

the card is required for a benefit available to all Times Company

employees by virtue of its foundation’s charitable relationships,

such as free admission to the Metropolitan Museum).

79.

Staff members may not use Times stationery, business cards,

forms or other materials for any purpose except the business

of the newspaper.

Speaking for The Times

80.

Staff members must not disclose confidential information about the

operations, policies or plans of The Times or its corporate affiliates.

81.

Department heads and masthead executives may authorize other

staff members to comment publicly on policies or plans within

the staff members’ areas of responsibility and expertise. If staff

members are approached by other media or other outsiders to

discuss Times content or policy, they should refer the questioners to

a masthead executive or the corporate communications department.

82.

Staff members are free to discuss their own activities in

public, provided their comments do not create an impression

that they lack journalistic impartiality or speak for The Times.

83.

None of these restrictions should be interpreted as barring a

staff member from responding openly and honestly to any

reasonable inquiry from a reader about that staff member’s work.

If a reader asks for a correction, that request should be passed

promptly to a supervisor. If the request threatens legal action or

appears to be from a lawyer, the complaint should be promptly

referred to the legal department through a department head.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

84.

Any staff member intending to write or assemble a nonfiction

book based on material that derives from his or her assignment

or beat must notify The Times in advance, so The Times can

decide whether to make a competitive bid to publish the work.

In this regard, staff members cannot accept or entertain any sort

of preemptory bid from an outside publisher before allowing

The Times to consider the project. Staff members are required to

inform The Times of any such project or proposal, in writing,

by sending a letter or e-mail to their department head, as well

as to the standards editor or the deputy editorial page editor.

The notification should include any information about the

anticipated time frame of the project, including (if applicable)

the time frame that an outside publisher has set for bidding

on the project.

85.

Within a reasonable period, taking into account the time

frame for the project, The Times will inform the staff member

in writing whether it wants to compete for the project. If

it does, The Times will provide the staff member with a

competitive bid. In the end, the staff member and his or her

agent have no obligation to accept The Times’s offer. This

process is intended to assure The Times a seat at the table in

any negotiations, including auctions, involving books based

on materials derived from a Times assignment or beat.

86.

These guidelines do not apply to book proposals or projects

that involve the reproduction of articles, columns, photographs,

artwork or other material created by staff members and

published in The Times or on nytimes.com. The Times

owns such material outright, and no such material may

be reproduced elsewhere without the prior written permission

of The Times, nor may it be rewritten, updated or otherwise

altered and then republished without The Times’s prior

written permission. Staff members are often approached by

agents, producers, studios or others seeking rights to Times

material. Such inquiries must be forwarded immediately to

the standards editor or to the deputy editorial page editor and

to the legal department. If a staff member represented by the

Books, Movies, Reprints and Copyright

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Books, Movies, Reprints and Copyright

Newspaper Guild has questions about rights to payment for

reprints of articles that the staff member has written, he or she

should refer to The Times’s collective bargaining agreement

with the Guild. In general, this agreement calls for a 50/50

split of the fees involved.

87.

In contemplating book projects . or other outside endeavors

. staff members must never give an impression they might

benefit financially from the outcome of news events. Staff

members may not negotiate with any outside person or

entity for any rights to an article or story idea before the

article has run in The Times. Staff members involved in

covering a running story may not negotiate over books, articles,

films, programs or media projects of any sort based on that

coverage until that news has played out, unless they have written

permission in advance from the standards editor or the deputy

editorial page editor.

88.

No staff member may serve as a ghost writer or co-author for

individuals who figure or are likely to figure in coverage they

provide, edit, package or supervise.

89.

No staff member will be given a leave of absence, paid or unpaid,

to write a book without the explicit permission of the executive

editor or the editorial page editor. Ideally, a staff member who

feels he or she will need to leave to complete a book project

should inform The Times of the intention to seek a leave at the

same time he or she first makes the book project available for

consideration by The Times. A decision to grant or deny a

request for a book leave . like requests for most other leaves of

absence . will be based on many factors, including previous

book leaves or accommodations the newspaper has granted to

the staff member; the impact the leave will have on departmental

staffing needs, and the degree to which The Times believes the

book project will accrue to the newspaper’s interests. If a staff

member represented by the Newspaper Guild has a question

about a leave of absence, he or she should refer to The Times’s

collective bargaining agreement with the Guild.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

90.

At no time may a staff member turn over notes, interviews,

documents or other working materials to any third party,

including agents, producers, studios or outside production

agencies, or share those materials with them unless legally

compelled to do so. Staff members are advised that in such

circumstances, The Times’s legal department will provide

assistance. (Those represented by the Guild should refer to

their collective bargaining agreement for the parameters of

that assistance.) As a matter of policy, The Times will not

give commercial producers or publishers access to working

materials any more than it would turn them over to government

prosecutors for use in court.

91.

This paragraph applies only to television and film: Staff

members offered “consulting” agreements by agents, producers,

studios or others must consult the standards editor or the

deputy editorial page editor before accepting. No staff

member may serve as a consultant to a film or program that

he or she knows in advance is tendentious or clearly distorts

the underlying facts. In no case should a consulting role be

described in a way that invokes The Times or implies its

endorsement or participation.

Books, Movies, Reprints and Copyright

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Journalistic Work Outside The Times

92.

Staff members are generally entitled to accept freelance

assignments that do not directly compete with The

Times’s own offerings. Normally, work for competitors

will not be permitted. When allowed in rare instances,

permission will be limited to cases in which The Times is

not interested in assigning the staff member a similar piece

or project.

93.

The Times competes in a far larger arena today than in

the past. The printed paper remains our flagship, as does The

International Herald Tribune internationally, but we reach

an audience of millions through The New York Times on

the Web. We are learning to translate our journalism into

outstanding television. We publish numerous books, both

original and drawn from past articles; we offer archival

photos of museum quality. We deliver The New York Times

in its complete form via the Web. Our bedrock mission is to

serve a high-quality audience that values Times journalism,

relying on any appropriate medium.

94.

Competitors include any newspaper, magazine or other

media of publication, regardless of form, with an editorial

focus on either New York City or general-interest news and

information. If the competitive status of a publication, Web

site or TV production is unclear, a staff member should consult

with the standards editor or the deputy editorial page editor.

95.

Staff members are encouraged (but not required) to offer

their freelance work to The Times or, in the case of a

Web site, to The New York Times on the Web before

trying to sell it elsewhere. The Times offers a number of

outlets for work for which a staff member is paid extra,

including the Times Magazine, the Week in Review, the

Book Review and special sections. (As paragraph 84 requires

of book proposals, any freelance material that derives from a

Times assignment or beat must first be offered to The Times

before a staff member offers it elsewhere.)

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

96.

Staff members must ensure that their freelance work does not 9

interfere with their responsibilities to The Times and that it is

consistent with these policies and guidelines. If any doubt

exists, they must consult their supervisors and the standards

editor or the deputy editorial page editor before accepting

outside assignments.

97.

Before accepting a freelance assignment, a staff member should

make sure that the tone and content of the publication, Web site

or program are in keeping with the standards of The Times. In

general, a staff member should write nothing elsewhere that

could not fit comfortably under his or her byline in The Times

or that implies The Times’s sponsorship or endorsement. An

outside publication, program or Web site may identify staff

members by their Times positions but only in a routine way.

98.

Because their primary identification is with The Times, staff

members who accept freelance assignments should adhere

to these guidelines in carrying out those assignments. For

example, a staff member on freelance assignment may not

accept compensation, expenses, discounts, gifts or other

inducements from a news source. Similarly, staff members

who establish their own sites on the World Wide Web must

insure that their online conduct conforms to these guidelines.

99.

Frequency matters. Freelance work might create a conflict of

interest if it is pursued with such regularity that it interferes

with Times assignments or compromises the integrity or

independence of The Times. Freelancing might also create a

conflict if it identifies a staff member as closely with another

publication or Web site as with The Times. A business

reporter who wrote a column in every issue of a trade magazine

might soon become more identified with that magazine than

with The Times. A critic writing regularly for an arts magazine

might foster the impression that The Times was not his or her

prime responsibility. The use of a pseudonym does not alter

the obligation to comply with this provision.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

29

Journalistic Work Outside The Times

Journalistic Work Outside The Times

100.

A regular contribution to an outside enterprise is permissible if

it does not interfere with or flow from Times responsibilities or

involve intellectual matter owed to The Times and its readers.

Examples of acceptable affiliations might be a foreign desk

copy editor who writes a monthly column on stamp-collecting

or a mapmaker working as a freelance illustrator. Staff members

considering such continuing ventures should confer with

their supervisors and with the standards editor or the deputy

editorial page editor.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

10

101. Staff members may participate in radio, television or Internet

interviews or discussions, paid or unpaid, that deal with

articles they have written or subjects that figure in the coverage

they provide, edit, package or supervise. Such occasional

appearances must not imply that they carry the sponsorship or

endorsement of The Times (unless they do). Staff members

should be careful about the use of their names and that of the

newspaper in materials promoting the appearances. As a

courtesy, they should let their department head know about

their plans to appear.

102.

In deciding whether to make a radio, television or Internet

appearance, a staff member should consider its probable tone

and content to make sure they are consistent with Times

standards. Staff members should avoid strident, theatrical forums

that emphasize punditry and reckless opinion-mongering.

Instead, we should offer thoughtful and retrospective analysis.

Generally a staff member should not say anything on radio,

television or the Internet that could not appear under his or

her byline in The Times.

103.

New York Times Television draws on the paper’s staff in

producing programs for broadcast on its partly owned channel,

DiscoveryTimes, and on networks and channels owned by

outside parties, such as Public Television and the Discovery

Channel. Staff members may not appear on broadcasts that

compete directly with The Times’s own offerings on television

or the Internet. They may not accept assignments from the

Times’s TV clients or potential clients without its approval.

As the paper moves further into these new fields, its direct

competitors and clients or potential clients will undoubtedly

grow in number. A staff member who has any doubt about the

status of a particular program should consult the standards

editor or the deputy editorial page editor.

104.

Appearances might create a conflict of interest if they come

so regularly that they interfere with Times assignments or

compromise the integrity or independence of The Times.

Appearing on Broadcast Media

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

31

They might also create a conflict if they identify a staff

member as closely with a radio or television program or a Web

site as with The Times. A Washington reporter who appeared

weekly on a television program might soon become more

known for that program than for work done for The Times.

Occasional appearances on the same program would not run

that risk.

105.

Staff members who want to promote their books through

broadcast appearances must conform to the requirements set

out in paragraph 48.

Appearing on Broadcast Media

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

11

106. In a day when most families balance two careers, the legitimate

activities of companions, spouses and other relatives can

sometimes create journalistic conflicts of interest or the

appearance of conflicts. They can crop up in civic or political

life, professional pursuits and financial activity. A spouse or

companion who runs for public office would obviously create

the appearance of conflict for a political reporter or an editor

involved in election coverage. A brother or a daughter in a

high-profile job on Wall Street might produce the appearance

of conflict for a business reporter or editor.

107.

To avoid such conflicts, staff members may not write about

people to whom they are related by blood or marriage or with

whom they have close personal relationships, or edit material

about such people or make news judgments about them. For

similar reasons, staff members should not recruit or directly

supervise family members or close friends. Some exceptions

are permissible . in a foreign bureau, for instance, where a

married couple form a team, or in the case of an article by a

food writer profiling her brother the Yankee star, where the

kinship is of genuine news interest.

Disclosure of Possible Conflicts

Sorting Out Family Ties

108.

Staff members must be sensitive to these possibilities. Any

staff member who sees a potential for conflict or a threat to the

paper’s reputation in the activities of spouse, friends or relatives

must discuss the situation with his or her supervising editor

and the standards editor or the deputy editorial page editor.

109.

In some cases, disclosure is enough. But if The Times considers

the problem serious, the staff member may have to withdraw

from certain coverage. Sometimes an assignment may have to

be modified or a beat changed. In a few instances, a staff

member may have to move to a different department . from

business and financial news, say, to the culture desk . to

avoid the appearance of conflict.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

33

110.

Although this policy necessarily imposes restraints, The Times

has no wish to intrude upon the private lives of its staff

members and their families. Nothing in this document seeks

to prohibit a companion, spouse or other relative of a Times

staff member from taking part in any political, financial,

commercial, religious or civic activity. The Times understands

that friends and relatives of its staff have every right to

pursue full and active lives, personally and professionally. If

restrictions are necessary, they fall on the Times employee. But

any attempt to disguise a staff member’s participation in

prohibited activity by using a relative’s name or any other

alias (or by acting anonymously) violates this guideline.

111.

In all cases The Times depends on staff members to disclose

potential problems in a timely fashion so that we can work

together to prevent embarrassment for staff members and

The Times.

Sorting Out Family Ties

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

12

112. Every member of the Times staff must be constantly vigilant

against any appearance that he or she is abusing nonpublic

information for financial gain. That imperative applies to all

departments.

113.

Though staff members must necessarily accept certain limits

on their freedom to invest, this policy leaves a broad range of

investments open to them. Any staff member, regardless of

assignment, is free to own diversified mutual funds, money

market funds and other diversified investments that the

reporter or editor cannot control. Any member also may own

treasury bills, investment-grade municipal bonds, debt securities

other than speculative bonds, and securities issued by the New

York Times Company. And staff members are of course free to

own stocks entirely unrelated to their Times assignment.

114.

No staff member may own stock or have any other financial

interest in a company, enterprise or industry that figures or

is likely to figure in coverage that he or she provides, edits,

packages or supervises regularly. A book editor, for example,

may not invest in a publishing house, a health writer in a

pharmaceutical company or a Pentagon reporter in a mutual

fund specializing in defense stocks. For this purpose an

industry is defined broadly; for example, a reporter responsible

for any segment of media coverage may not own any media

stock. “Stock” should be read to include futures, options,

rights, and speculative debt, as well as “sector” mutual funds

(those focused on one industry).

115.

Staff members may not buy or sell securities or make other

investments in anticipation of forthcoming articles that originate

with The Times. In general, staff members must refrain from

acting on such information before noon Eastern time the day

of print publication. This restriction does not apply to spot

news that first appears on wire services or that originates

elsewhere. That information is public.

Investments and Financial Ties

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

35

Affirming Good-Faith Compliance

Investments and Family Ties

116.

Staff members in any department will be asked when hired

to affirm that they have no investments that would violate

paragraph 114 with respect to the assignment they are being

given. If a new staff member is unable to make this affirmation,

the staff member may choose to sell the conflicting holding.

(See paragraph 128.) If not, he or she must be given a different

assignment where no such conflict exists.

117.

Staff members should be acutely sensitive that the investments

and business interests of their spouse, family and companions

may create real or apparent conflicts of interest by raising

questions of favoritism. Staff members will be asked when

hired to affirm that to the best of their knowledge no spouse,

family member or companion has financial holdings that

might reasonably raise doubts about the impartiality of the

staff member’s reporting or editing in his or her proposed

assignment. Depending on circumstances, the new staff member

may have to recuse himself or herself from certain coverage

or accept an alternative assignment unrelated to the holdings

in question.

118.

The associate managing editor for news administration or

the deputy editorial page editor may from time to time ask

staff members in any department to affirm that they have no

investments in violation of paragraph 114. Such a request

might be expected, for example, when a staff member is

about to begin a new assignment or work on a particularly

sensitive article.

119.

Similarly, staff members may be asked on occasion to affirm

that to the best of their knowledge no spouse, family

member or companion has financial holdings that might

reasonably raise doubts about the impartiality of the staff

member’s reporting or editing. If and when such conditions

come up, the staff member must alert his or her department

head and the standards editor. Depending on circumstances,

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

the staff member may have to recuse himself or herself

from certain coverage or even to move to a job unrelated to

the holdings.

120.

If a reporter who owns stock in a company outside his or

her regular beat is assigned to write an article about that

company or its industry, the reporter must discuss the

investment with the assigning editor before beginning the

work. Similarly, editors assigned to major articles or a series

about companies or industries in which they have investments

must advise their supervisors of potential conflicts before

beginning the editing. In many instances it will be perfectly

permissible for the work to proceed, but the reporter or

editor who works on such an article or series may not buy

or sell stock in the company or industry until two weeks

after publication.

Business-Financial, Technology and Media News

Investments and Financial Ties

121.

Staff members in business-financial news regularly work

with sensitive information that affects financial prices.

Because of that sensitivity, they are subject to additional

and stricter requirements. Staff members in technology news

and media news are subject to the same rules as those in

business-financial news, for the same reason.

122.

Members of these three departments may not play the

market. That is, they may not conduct in-and-out trading

(buying and selling the same security within three months).

They may not buy or sell options or futures or sell securities

short. Any of these actions could create the appearance that

a staff member was speculating by exploiting information

not available to the public.

123. In special circumstances . a family financial crisis, for example

. the associate managing editor for news administration may

waive the three-month holding period.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Investments and Family Ties

124.

Supervising editors in business-financial, technology or media

news should be especially cautious in investing because they

may reasonably expect to become involved in the coverage

of virtually any company at any time. Their counterparts

in other departments should be equally sensitive to possible

conflicts in supervising coverage of companies in their domain.

125.

Because of the sensitivity of their assignments, some business-

financial staff members may not own stock in any company

(other than the New York Times Company). These include

the Market Place writer, other market columnists, the regular

writer of the daily stock market column, reporters regularly

assigned to mergers and acquisitions, the daily markets editor,

the Sunday investing editor, the Sunday Business editor, the

business and financial editor and his or her deputies.

126.

Masthead editors and other editors who play a principal part

in deciding the display of business and financial news, including

its display on Page 1, may not own stock in any company

(other than the New York Times Company).

127.

The editorial page editor, the deputy editorial page editor and

the Op-Ed editor may not own stock in any company (other

than the New York Times Company). Nor may editorial

writers and Op-Ed columnists regularly assigned to write

about business, finance or economics.

Transitional Arrangements

128.

A staff member who owns stock and moves into an assignment

where such holdings are not permitted must sell the stock.

Those who are newly barred from owning stock of any sort

(for example, on being promoted to deputy business and

financial editor) may dispose of their shares in phases, following

a reasonable plan worked out with the associate managing

editor for news administration. But the phase-out does not

apply to reporters or editors who own shares in specific industries

they are newly assigned to cover. For instance, it is manifestly

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

untenable for a new Automobiles editor to own stock in an

auto company, so divestiture must be prompt.

129.

Whenever this document requires the sale of stock holdings,

a staff member can satisfy the requirement by putting the

shares into a blind trust (or into an equivalent financial

arrangement that meets the same goal: preventing an individual

from knowing at any given time the specific holdings in the

account and blocking the individual from controlling the

timing of transactions in such holdings). If The Times

assigns a staff member to a new job where mandatory

divestiture would impose an undue hardship, The Times

will reimburse the staff member for the reasonable costs of

setting up a blind trust.

Annual Filing by Ranking Editors

Investments and Financial Ties

130.

To avoid an appearance of conflict, certain editors must

annually affirm to the chief financial officer of The Times

Company that they have no financial holdings in violation

of paragraphs 125-127 or any other provision of these

guidelines. They include the executive editor, the managing

editor, deputy and assistant managing editors, associate

managing editors, the business and financial editor, his or

her deputies and the Sunday Business editor. They also

include the editorial page editor, the deputy editorial page

editor and the Op-Ed editor.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

13

Sports

Rules for Specialized Departments

131.

To avoid an appearance of bias, no member of the sports

department may gamble on any sports event, except for

occasional recreational wagering on horse racing (or dog

racing or jai alai). This exception does not apply to staff

members who cover such racing or regularly edit that coverage.

132.

Except as provided in paragraph 30, members of the sports

department may not accept tickets, travel expenses, meals,

gifts or any other benefit from teams or promoters.

133.

Sports reporters assigned to cover games may not serve as scorers.

Members of the sports department may not take part in voting for

the Heisman Trophy, most valuable player and rookie of the year

awards, entry into the Baseball Hall of Fame or similar honors.

Culture, Styles, Dining

134.

The Times has exceptional influence in such fields as theater,

music, art, dance, publishing, fashion and the restaurant

industry. We are constantly scrutinized for the slightest whiff

of favoritism. Therefore staff members working in those areas

have a special duty to guard against conflicts of interest or the

appearance of conflict.

135.

Reporters, reviewers, critics and their editors in the Book

Review, the Times Magazine and the cultural news, media

news and styles departments, beyond abiding by the other

provisions of this document, may not help others develop,

market or promote artistic, literary or other creative endeavors.

136.

They may not suggest agents, publishers, producers or

galleries to aspiring authors, playwrights, composers or artists.

They may not suggest chefs to restaurant owners or designers

to clothing manufacturers. They may not recommend authors,

playwrights, composers or other artists to agents, publishers,

producers or galleries.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

40

137.

They may not offer suggestions or ideas to people who 13

figure or are likely to figure in coverage they provide, edit,

package or supervise. They may not invest in productions

that figure or are likely to figure in their coverage. (Food

writers and editors may not invest in restaurants.) They may

not comment, even informally, on works in progress before

those works are reviewed.

138.

They may not serve on advisory boards, awards juries, study committees

or other panels organized by the people they cover or

whose coverage they supervise. They may not accept awards from

such people. And they may not request extra copies of books,

tapes or other materials that are routinely submitted for review.

139.

An arts writer or editor who owns art of exhibition quality

(and thus has a financial stake in the reputation of the artist)

may inspire questions about the impartiality of his or her

critical judgments or editing decisions. Thus members of the

culture staff who collect valuable objects in the visual arts

(paintings, photographs, sculpture, crafts and the like) must

annually submit a list of their acquisitions and sales to the

associate managing editor for news administration.

140.

The Times recognizes that members of its talented staff write

books, operas and plays; create sculpture, and give recitals. It

further recognizes that such projects require commercial

arrangements to come to fruition. A writer requires a publisher,

a playwright a production company.

141.

Nevertheless those commercial ties can be a breeding ground for

favoritism, actual or perceived. Staff members who enter into such

arrangements must disclose them to their supervisors, who may

require them to withdraw from coverage of the parties involved.

Staff members who have a publisher or a movie contract, for

example, must be exceedingly sensitive to any appearance of bias in

covering other publishers or studios. Those with any doubts about

a proposed arrangement should consult the standards editor or

the deputy editorial page editor.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

41

Rules for Specialized Departments

142.

Certain positions, such as those of the Book Review editor

and the culture editor, have such potential for conflicts that

those editors may not enter into any commercial arrangements

with publishers, studios, or other arts producers without

the executive editor’s written approval.

Art, Pictures, Technology

Rules for Specialized Departments

143.

Beyond honoring all the other provisions of this document,

Times photographers, picture editors, art directors, lab

personnel and technology editors and reporters may not

accept gifts of equipment, programs or materials from

manufacturers or vendors. They may not endorse equipment,

programs or materials, or offer advice on product design.

This guideline is not meant to restrict The Times from

working with vendors to improve its systems or equipment.

144.

With the approval of the picture editor, the design director,

the technology editor or the Circuits editor, staff members

may test equipment or materials on loan from manufacturers

or vendors, provided such tests are properly monitored. The

equipment or materials should be returned promptly after

testing unless purchased by The Times.

Automobiles

145.

It is our policy that no one may test drive or review a vehicle

for The Times unless the paper is paying the vehicle’s owner

the normal market rental or its equivalent. Rare exceptions

may occur when an equivalent rent is largely hypothetical, as

with military vehicles, vintage autos or race cars.

146.

Reviewers should carry out their testing expeditiously and

return the vehicle promptly. A reasonable amount of personal

use is permissible provided that the use contributes to

the review.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Travel

13

147.

No writer or editor for the Travel section, whether on

assignment or not, may accept free or discounted services

of any sort from any element of the travel industry. This

includes hotels, resorts, restaurants, tour operators, airlines,

railways, cruise lines, rental car companies and tourist

attractions. (See also paragraph 33, which applies to all staff

members.) This prohibition applies to the free trips commonly

awarded in raffles at travel industry events. It does not apply,

however, to routinely accumulated frequent-flyer points.

148.

Travel editors who deal with non-staff contributors have a special

obligation to guard against conflicts of interest or the

appearance of conflict. They must bear in mind that it is our

policy not to give Travel assignments to freelance writers

who have previously accepted free services. Depending on

circumstances, the Travel editor may make rare exceptions, for

example, for a writer who ceased the practice years ago or who

has reimbursed his or her host for services previously accepted.

It is also our policy not to give Travel assignments to anyone

who represents travel suppliers or who works for a government

tourist office or as a publicist of any sort. The Travel editor

may make rare exceptions, for example, for a writer widely

recognized as an expert in a particular culture.

149.

Writers on assignment for Travel must conceal their Times

affiliation. The validity of their work depends on their experiencing

the same conditions as an ordinary tourist or consumer.

If the Times affiliation becomes known, the writer must discuss

with an editor whether the reporting to that point can be

salvaged. On rare occasions, the affiliation may be disclosed, for

example, when a special permit is required to enter a closed area.

150.

No Travel writer may write about any travel service or product

offered by a family member or close friend. (See paragraph 107.)

151.

These rules also apply to writers and editors for Weekend,

Escapes, Sophisticated Traveler and the like.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Rules for Specialized Departments

14

152.

Times readers apply exacting standards to the entire paper.

Dealing with Outside Contributors

They do not distinguish between staff written articles and

those written by outsiders. Thus as far as possible, freelance

contributors to The Times, while not its employees, will be held

to the same standards as staff members when they are on Times

assignments, including those for the Times Magazine. If they

violate these guidelines, they will be denied further assignments.

153.

Before being given an assignment, freelance contributors must

sign a contract with The Times. These contracts oblige them

to take care to avoid conflicts of interests or the appearance of

conflict. Specifically, in connection with work for The Times,

freelancers will not accept free transportation, free lodging,

gifts, junkets, commissions or assignments from current or

potential news sources. In addition, they will publish no

similar article in a competing publication (see paragraph 94)

within 14 days unless The Times approves.

154.

The contracts’ concise provisions cannot cover every

circumstance that might arise. Assigning editors should

ensure that contributors are aware of this document and to

the greatest extent possible, in fact honor its provisions

while on assignment for The Times. Any disagreement over

whether a specific provision applies to outside contributors

should be resolved before the assignment proceeds.

155.

Assigning editors in business and financial news who deal

with non-staff contributors have a special duty to guard

against conflicts of interest or the appearance of conflict. To

the extent possible, assigning editors should ensure that

outside contributors meet the strict standards outlined in

Section 12 above for the business and financial news staff.

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

44

Sample letter declining a gift

Dear XXXXXXXXX,

Your recent gift came as a pleasant surprise. I appreciate your thinking

of me.

But the gift puts me in an awkward position. The New York Times

bars its reporters and editors from accepting anything of value from

the people or groups they cover. The paper does not want to risk the

perception that it will cover a subject more thoroughly or skew its

coverage of controversial subjects because interested parties have

expressed appreciation for its efforts.

So I must return your gift with thanks. I hope you understand our

position, and I thank you for your thoughtfulness.

Sincerely,

Appendix

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Appendix

Sample letter declining an unsolicited award

Dear XXXXXXXXX,

Your recent letter informing me that I’d been selected to receive an

award from XXXXXXXX came as a pleasant surprise. I appreciate

the sentiment behind the award.

But your decision puts me in an awkward position. The New York

Times bars its reporters and editors from accepting awards conferred

by groups that have an interest in the subjects covered by the award

recipients. The paper does not want to risk the perception that it will

cover a subject more thoroughly or skew its coverage of controversial

subjects because interested parties have applauded its efforts.

So I must decline your award with thanks. I hope you and your

colleagues understand our position.

Thank you again for your kind words.

Sincerely,

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Letter of understanding with the Newspaper Guild of New York

Appendix C

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

References are provided as paragraph numbers

activities

political. see political activities

private. see private activities

prohibited, 25

recreational, news sources and, 23

admission, to museums, 36

advertisers, relationship with, 72

advertising department, and news department

interactions, 73, 76

advice, providing, 39, 41

advisory committees, serving on

when allowed, 70

when prohibited, 69

affiliation

concealing

by critics and reviewers, 21

by travel writers, 149

normally disclosed, 20

with outside publishers, acceptable examples of, 100

anonymity

of critics and reviewers, 21

of news sources, 13

of staff member, in conflict situations, 110

of travel writers, 21, 149

art critics

anonymity of, 21

rules governing behavior of, 143, 144

art directors, rules governing behavior of, 143, 144

artistic performances, free tickets for, guidelines

for accepting, 30

assigning editors, freelance contributors and, 154, 155

athletic events, free tickets for, guidelines for

accepting, 30, 132

attribution, 31

authors, staff as, 48, 105

co-authorship and, 40, 88

promotional tours and, 48

automobile review, 145-146

awards

from educational institutions, 55

unsolicited, 54

sample letter declining, Appendix B

voting for, 52, 133

ballot causes, endorsing, 62

Baseball Hall of Fame, 133

behavior

special rules governing

art, pictures, technology departments, 143-144

automobile testing, 145-146

culture, styles, dining departments, 134-142

sports department, 131-133

travel department, 147-151

standards of

covered by guidelines, 512

Newsroom Integrity Statement (1999), 13

Rules of the Road, 14

benefit dinners, lending name to, 65

benefits

financial, from news coverage, 87

New York Times Foundation and, 36, 78

bias. see impartiality

blind trust, mandatory divestiture and, 129

boards of trustees, serving on

when allowed, 70

when prohibited, 69

Book Review, 95

Book Review editor, 142

Book Review staff, rules governing behavior of, 134-142

books

blurbs, 59

for review, 57

staff-authored

competitive bidding guidelines, 84-85

financial benefit and, 87

leave of absence and, 89

promotion of, 48, 105

Times publication of, 93

borrowed equipment

keeping, 57

return of, 56, 144

vehicles, 145, 146

brokerage firms, 38

business and financial news

editor of

annual good-faith affirmation by, 130

investment restrictions on, 121-127

freelance contributors and, 155

investment restrictions on staff members in, 121, 127

business cards, use of, 79

business stationery, use of, 79

campaign buttons, 6, 61, 62

campaigning, political, 6

campaigns, lending name to, 65

car reviewers, 145-146

charitable events, lending name to, 65

Circuits editor, 144

civility, treating readers with, 16

co-authorship, 40, 88

collaboration, when prohibited, 58

colleges. see educational institutions

comments, public, by staff members, 81, 82

commercial ventures, by staff members, 140, 141

commissions, serving on, 69

communication

electronic. see electronic communications

with readers, 16

community groups, serving with, 70

Index

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Index

community service, participation in, 69-71

compact discs, for review, 57

companions. see also family members

investment and business activities of, 117, 119

political activity of, 67

compensation, prohibited, 34

speaker’s fee, 44

competitions, entering

approved list of, 53

when allowed, 51

when prohibited, 50

competitive bidding, on staff-authored

non-fiction books, 84-85

competitors

arena and scope of, 93, 94

broadcast media, 103

treatment of, 31

working with, 31

computer programs, for review, 57

computers

illegal activities relating to, 25

policies concerning, 14

confidential information, 80

conflict

appearance of, avoiding, 23

family members’ activities and

disclosing, 108-111

examples and exceptions, 106, 107

freelance contributors and, 148, 155

possible areas of, 3

regular broadcast media appearances as, 104

travel writers and editors and, 148

consent, to record conversations, obtaining, 27

conservators, serving as, 41

consultation, internal

on appearing on broadcast media, 103

on appropriateness of freelance assignment, 94, 100

for clarification of policy provisions, 10

to clarify movie and television consulting roles, 91

on potential conflict with family members’

activities, 111

“consulting” agreements, movie and television, 91

content. see tone and content

contests, entering. see competitions, entering contracts

with freelance contributors, 7, 153, 154

contributors, freelance. see freelance contributors

conversations, recording, 27

copyright items, 86

corporate discounts, 36-37

corrections, 15

reader’s request for, 83

court-appointed conservators, serving as, 41

courtesy

informing departmental heads about plans, 101

to readers, 16

coverage

ensuring neutrality of, 33-38

advice and, 39-41

borrowed equipment and, 56, 57, 144

collaboration and testimonials and, 58, 59

competitions and contests and, 50-55

speaking engagements and, 42-49

Times ownership of, 86

withdrawal from, 67, 109

critics. see reviewers

participation in contests, 52

rules governing behavior of, 134-142

culture editor, 142

culture editors and writers, rules governing

behavior of, 134-142

de minimis gifts, 33

debt securities, 113

demonstration, political, 62

department heads

consultation with, 10

responsibility of, 12

design director, 144

detachment, professional. see impartiality

Dining editors and writers, rules governing

behavior of, 134-142

disciplinary action, scope of, 8

disclosure

of family members’ activities, 108-111

of fees accepted, 47

financial, good-faith compliance with, 116, 120

inappropriate, 6, 17

of staff member’s identity, 20

discounts

acceptable, 36

caution in accepting certain, 37

travel writers and editors and, 147

Discovery Channel, 103

divestiture, of financial holdings, acceptable

arrangements for, 128, 129

documents, transfer to third party, 90

donations

to community groups, 71

political, 63

editorial page editors

annual good-faith affirmation by, 130

investment restrictions on, 127

editorial writers

investment restrictions on, 127

participation on radio and television programs, 66

editors

ad-hoc assignments posing conflicts, 120

of business and financial news

annual good-faith affirmation by, 130

stock ownership limitations on, 121-127

in cultural and arts departments, rules governing

behavior of, 134-142

educational institutions

accepting awards from, 55

serving as trustee of, 69

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

elections, voting in, 62

electronic communication

for consultation, 10

illegal activities relating to, 25

policies on, 14

from readers, 16

e-mail. see electronic communications

employment, prohibited, 34, 39

endorsement

implied, avoiding, 97

personal versus corporate, 49, 59

political, 62

equipment, borrowed

keeping, 57

return of, 56, 144

vehicles, 145, 146

errors, correction of, 15

reader’s request for, 83

Escapes editors and writers, rules governing

behavior of, 147-151

estate administrators, serving as, 41

ethics guidelines

interpretation and application of, 12

modification and expansion of, 11

and other standards of behavior, 13, 14

private activities and, 60, 110

purpose of, 14

scope of, 5-12

staff members and, 10

evaluation items

keeping, 56

return of, 56, 144

vehicles, 145, 146

executive editor, authorization by, 74-76, 89, 142

executors, serving as, 41

expenses, for speaking engagement

disclosing, 47

when acceptable, 46

when prohibited, 44

expropriation, of Times name, 77

fact checking, 13

false identity

foreign travel and, 20

generally prohibited, 20

restaurant critics and, 21

false information, 18

family members

activities of

investment and business, 117, 119

political, 67

potential for conflict, 106, 107

Times’s respect for, 110

providing financial advice to, 41

travel services or products offered by, 150

fashion editors and writers, rules governing

behavior of, 134-142

favoritism

freedom from. see impartiality

perceptions of, 37, 134, 141

film festivals, 52

financial advice, providing, 41

financial disclosure, good-faith compliance with, 116-120

financial news. see business and financial news

food critics. see restaurant critics

foreign travel, protecting identity during, 20

free admission, to museums, 36

free tickets, accepting, guidelines for, 30

freelance assignments, by staff members

for competitors, 93

competitors versus non competitors, 92-94

frequency, 99

interference with normal workload, 96, 100

offering first to Times, 95

regular contribution, 100

tone and content, 97

Web presence, 98

freelance contributors

conflict of interest and, 148, 155

contract with, 7, 153, 154

disagreements with, 154

standards applied to, 152

travel editors and, 148

frequency

of broadcast media appearances, 104

of freelance assignments, 99

friend, travel services or products offered by, 150

“friends and family shares,” 38

fundraising

for community groups, 70

for political causes, 63, 71

gambling, 131

ghost writing, 40, 88

gifts, acceptance of

when allowed, 36

when prohibited, 33

sample letter declining, Appendix A

good-faith compliance, with financial disclosure

on hiring, 116

of investments and business activities of family

members, 117

on ongoing basis, 117, 118

government boards, serving on, 69

guardians, serving as, 41

harassment, policies against, 14

Heisman Trophy, 52, 133

help to organizations, prohibited and acceptable, 39

hiring, investment disclosure at, 116

honorariums

disclosing, 47

when acceptable, 46

when prohibited, 44

honorary degrees, acceptance of, 55

identification cards, Times, 26, 78

identity

concealing by travel writers, 21, 149

disclosing by staff member, 20

Index

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Index

illegal acts, examples of, 25

impartiality, 82. see also neutrality

commercial ties and, 141

news sources and, 22

test of, 23

impersonation, 20

in-and-out trading, 122

information

confidential, 80

disclosing inappropriately, 6

false, 18

gathering of, 17

nonpublic

acting on, time constraints for, 115

exploiting for personal gain, 6

financial gain from, 112

initial public offerings, of stock, 38

inquiries, from readers, responding to, 16

interdepartmental committees, 74

Internet interviews

participation in, 101

tone and content of, 102

interviews

Internet, 101

transfer to third party, 90

investment companies, 41

investments

disclosure on hiring, 116

divesting

arrangements for, 128-129

insider information and

acting on, time constraints for, 115

financial gain from, 112

limits imposed on, 114, 115, 120, 122

permissible holdings, 113

providing advice on, 41

judging competitions

when allowed, 51

when prohibited, 50, 52

lab personnel, rules governing behavior of, 143, 144

law, observing, 25-27

leaves of absence, 5, 89

legal action

reader-initiated, 83

to relinquish working materials, 90

legislation, endorsing, 62

letters, from readers, 16

letters (sample)

declining gifts, Appendix A

declining unsolicited awards, Appendix B

license plates, special, 26

lobbying groups, speaking to, 43

lodging

accepting, guidelines for, 29

travel writers and editors and, 147

marching, for public causes, 65

market columnists and writers, stock ownership

limitations on, 125

Market Place writer, stock ownership limitations on, 125

marketing, Times-sponsored, 75

masthead, competitive, listing on, prohibitions and

exceptions, 32

masthead editors, 59

annual good-faith affirmation by, 130

stock ownership limitations on, 126

meals

accepting, guidelines for, 28

news sources and, 23

medals, acceptance of, 55

money management, 41

money market funds, 113

most valuable player awards, 133

movies

“consulting” agreements and, 91

film festivals, staff participation at, 52

municipal bonds, 113

museums, free admission to, 36

music critics, anonymity of, 21

mutual funds, 113

“sector”, 114

name

lending to public causes, 65

Times, expropriating, 77

neutrality, protecting and maintaining, 6, 9, 33-38

borrowed equipment, 56, 57, 144

collaboration and testimonials, 58, 59

competitions and contests, 50-55

financial and other advice, 39-41

speaking engagements, 42-49

New York Times Company, owning securities of,

113, 125, 127

New York Times Foundation, and benefits, 36, 78

New York Times Television, 93, 103

news department, and advertising department

interaction, 73, 76

news events, financial benefit from, 87

news sources

anonymous, 13

cultivating, 22

hospitality from, accepting, 28-30

legal obligations toward, 25-27

personal relations with, 22-24

professional detachment from, 23

protecting personal details of, 19

romantic involvement with, 24

treating fairly, 18

Newspaper Guild

leaves of absence and, 89

relinquishment of working papers and, 90

reprint fees and, 35, 86

newsroom employees, strictures governing all, 6, 61

Newsroom Integrity Statement (1999), 13

nonpublic information

acting on, time constraints for, 115

exploiting for personal gain, 6

financial gain from, 112

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

notes, transfer to third party, 90

Ochs, Adolph, 1

online presence

by staff, 98

by Times, 86, 93-95

Op-Ed columnists

investment restrictions on, 127

participation in radio and television, 66

Op-Ed editors

annual good-faith affirmation by, 130

investment restrictions on, 127

opinion-mongering, avoiding, 102

outside contributors. see freelance contributors

outside publisher

acceptable affiliations with, examples of, 100

staff-authored non-fiction books and, 84

ownership, of published material, 86

partiality. see impartiality

partisanship, political, 6, 61, 62

photographers, rules on behavior of, 143, 144

photographs

integrity of, 13

from Times, 93

picture editor, 144

plagiarism, 18

political activities, 62

participation in, 62-68

case by case review, 68

political partisanship, 6, 61, 62

press passes, 30

press releases, submissions considered as, 57

private activities

ethical guidelines and, 60

family members and, 110

public discussion of, 82

professional detachment. see impartiality

profit-making events, speaking at, 44

promotional appearances

of self-authored works, 48, 105

Times-sponsored, 47, 75

pseudonym, use of, 99

public affairs programs, appearance on, 66

public comments, by staff members, 81

public life, participation in, 60, 61

community service, 69-71

political activities, 62-68

public office, seeking or serving, 64

public relations works, 39

Public Television, 103

punditry, avoiding, 102

quotations, exactness of, 13

radio programs

participation in, 66, 101

tone and content of, 102

rallying, for public causes, 65

ranking editors

annual good-faith affirmation by, 130

consultation with, 10

responsibility of, 12

readers

communication with, 16

duty to, 15-18

legal action threatened by, 83

responding to reasonable inquiries from, 16, 83

reassignment of duties, situations demanding

conflicting investments, 116

family conflict, 109

investment and business activities of family

members, 117

political activities of family members, 67

romantic involvement, 24

recording conversations, 27

recreational activities, news sources and, 23

recruitment, of family members, 107

recusal, situations demanding

investments and business activities of

family members, 117, 119

political activities of family members, 67

romantic involvement, 24

reimbursement, for establishing blind trust, 129

reprint fees, 35

split formula for, 86

upper limit on certain, 35

resolution, of differences, 8

responsibility

of department heads and ranking editors, 12

of staff member, freelance work interfering with,

96, 100

restaurant critics

anonymity of, 21

rules governing behavior of, 134-142

review items

keeping, 57

return or destruction of, 56, 57, 144

vehicles, 145, 146

reviewers

anonymity of, 21

free tickets for, guidelines for accepting, 30

rules governing behavior of, 134-142

romantic involvements, with news source, 24

rookie of the year award, 133

Rules of the Road, 14

schools. see educational institutions

“sector” mutual funds, 114

signatory, to public statements, 65

solicitation of funds. see fundraising

Sophisticated Traveler editors and writers, rules

governing behavior of, 147-151

sources, of news. see news sources

speaker’s fee

disclosing, 47

upper limit on, 46

Index

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Index

when acceptable, 46

when prohibited, 44

speaking engagements

approval for, 49

compensation for. see speaker’s fee

prohibited settings, 44, 45

to promote books, 48

protecting neutrality and, 42-49

special license plates, 26

sponsorship

of competitions, 50

implied, avoiding, 97

sports department, rules governing, 131-133

sports events, free tickets for, guidelines for

accepting, 30, 132

spouse. see also family members

investment and business activities of, 117, 119

political activity of, 67

staff members. see also specific editors and writers

by department

application of policy by, 10

as authors. see authors, staff as

in business-financial, technology, media news,

stock ownership restrictions, 121-127

creative talents of, commercial ties and, 140, 141

defined, 5

free tickets for, guidelines for accepting, 30

freelance assignments by, 95-100

identity disclosure by, 20

on interdepartmental committees, 74

legal obligations of, 25-27

normally not included as (clerks, secretaries,

assistants), 6

public comments by, 81

in sports department, rules governing, 131-133

at Times-sponsored marketing and

promotional events, 75

standards of behavior

covered by code, 5-12

Newsroom Integrity Statement (1999), 13

Policy on Confidential Sources (2004), 13

Rules of the Road, 14

stock

buying in initial public offerings, 38

buying or selling, time constraints on, 115, 120, 122

owning, 113-114

selling to avoid conflict, 116

arrangements for, 128-129

styles editors and writers, rules governing

behavior of, 134-142

Sunday business editor

annual good-faith affirmation by, 130

investment restrictions on, 125

supervision, of family members, 107

tapes, for review, 57

technology and media news, investment restrictions

on staff members in, 121-127

technology editor, 144

telephone taps, 25

television programs

appearance on, 66, 101

“consulting” agreements and, 91

Times entry into. see New York Times Television

tone and content of, 102

test drive, 145, 146

testimonial, personal versus corporate, 59

tickets, free, guidelines for accepting, 30, 132

Times

bidding competitively on staff-authored

non-fiction books, 84, 85

content and policy of, commenting on, 80, 81

first refusal for freelance work, 95

identification cards issued by, 26, 78

marketing and promotional events sponsored

by, 47, 75

relinquishing working materials, policy on, 90

staff obligations to, 77-83

Times Magazine, 95

staff of, rules governing behavior of, 134-142

tone and content

of freelance assignments, 97

of radio, television programs and Internet

interviews, 102

Tony Awards, 52

transportation, accepting, guidelines for, 29, 44

travel, overseas, protecting identity during, 20

travel editors, rules governing behavior of, 147-151

travel writers

anonymity of, 21, 149

rules governing behavior of, 147-151

treasury bills, 113

trustees, 69, 70

University of Missouri awards for consumer

journalism, 51

unsolicited awards, 54

sample letter declining, Appendix B

values, resolving differences over, 8

vehicle review, 145, 146

views, personal, 49

violations

action taken against, 8

ignorance of policy provisions and, 10

voice-mail messages. see electronic communication

voting

for awards, 52, 133

in political elections, 62

Web site. see also Internet interviews

staff-owned, 98

Times, 86, 93-95

Week in Review, 95

Weekend editors and writers, rules governing

behavior of, 147-151

working materials, transfer to third party, 90

workload, interference with

broadcast media appearances, 104

freelance assignments, 96, 100

ETHICAL JOURNALISM

Trackback 0 Comment 1
  1. BlogIcon Lawyer Marketing 2011.08.18 06:57 address edit & del reply

    온라인 성취를 쫓고있는 사람이지만, 반드시 피할 사람을 특징 사람을 위해, 당신은 몇 가지 도전에 나가 누락되었습니다. 라인에 생성 소득을 준수하는 훌륭한 전략을 가지고 사람들을 위해 덜 복잡한 수많은로 전환과 함께 어려운 것이 아닙니다.